Generally speaking, big describes weight or extent, large is often related to dimensions or volume and great suggests something impressive. Great is often used with abstract nouns.
Big is used more often than large. In fact, big is one of the most frequent words in the English language. Big may also sound a little less formal than large.
They have a big mansion in the countryside.
Big often means important, powerful, successful: That’s a big decision. He is a big tycoon in the automotive industry.
Big can also mean older or elder: My big brother has helped me a lot.
As mentioned above, large often refers to dimension or volume. They have a large house with a very large garden. I have a large collection of posters from the 1960s.
Large is more common with some quantity words such as the following: A large amount A large number To a large extent On a large scale A large percentage A large quantity
With food and clothes we use large: I’d like a large coffee, please. Those shoes are too large for you.
Large, not big, is used in the combination small, medium, large.
The expression at large has two meanings, 1) free, at liberty and 2) as a whole, in general: The prisoner is still at large. These findings relate to society at large.
Big and large are only used with countable nouns (read here about countable and uncountable nouns). You cannot talk about *big traffic or *large traffic (for the use of the asterisk, read at the end of this text). Instead we use heavy traffic, intense traffic or a lot of traffic.
Big and large often overlap in meaning when we talk about size. A big house. A large house.
It is sometimes said that big implies an element of emotion, surprise, etc., especially in fixed expressions such as the following: Big deal! She’s a big fan of the Rolling Stones. He’s a big liar.
A big-headed man is not the same as a large-headed man! A big-headed man thinks he is more important or cleverer than others, while a large-headed man just has a large head.
Susan is my big sister – she is older than me. Susan is my large sister – she is physically larger than my other siblings.
Great implies a large size: All creatures great and small.
Great often means distinguished, remarkable: She is one of the greatest novelists of our time. The performance was a great success. I have great respect for her abilities. He has great wisdom. My cousin is really great at tennis.
To vary your language, you should use synonyms. In a dictionary of synonyms you will find many words to describe size or importance, such as huge, enormous, sizeable, impressive, momentous, substantial, comprehensive, extensive, immense, tremendous, prominent, distinguished, etc.
The endings -ic and -ical may cause confusion. They both have the meaning of related to or characterised by.
The ending -ic is more common. Here are some examples: academic anestethic athletic chaotic episodic linguistic melodic neurotic parodic patriotic poetic rhapsodic sympathetic synthetic
The adjective ending -ical is common with nouns ending in -ology. anthropological biological geological physiological theological
Nouns ending in -ic take the ending -ical as adjectives: clinical musical sceptical
There are adjectives that have different meanings when they end in -ic and -ical:
CLASSIC is used to denote a standard, the highest quality or having lasting worth: Over 200 classic motorcycles are on display at the motor show. She wore a casual but classic outfit.
The Classics refers to the literature of ancient Greece or Rome: I’ve always wanted to read the Classics but I never seem to have time.
CLASSICAL refers to the culture of ancient Greece or Rome or to European music from the 18th and 19th centuries: In Italy a classical education is considered valuable also in business. Beethoven was arguably the greatest composer in the transition between classical and romantic music.
Classical can also refer to established principles in, e.g. physics: Classical mechanics is based on Newton’s general principles.
ECONOMIC refers to economy: Economic growth had never been stronger.
ECONOMICAL means being efficient or careful about spending money: Modern cars are much more economical.
ELECTRIC refers to machines or instruments powered by electricity: Electric cars are becoming very popular in Norway.
ELECTRICAL means related to electricity: He is an electrical engineer. The fire was started by some electrical fault.
HISTORIC To denote something important in history we use historic: This was a historic moment for our country. You must visit the town’s historic houses and gardens.
HISTORICAL Historical means related to or having to do with history or past events: In my youth I liked to read historical novels.
Adjectives ending in -ic and -ical have the adverbial form -ically (but the word public takes the form publicly).
A language is a living organism that constantly changes. Words often take on another meaning over time.
Let me give you an example:
Originally this word meant a heated building, usually made of glass, used to grow plants.
This is what it still means today, but the word is now also used figuratively referring to a place or situation with intense activity, usually to promote the development of somebody or something.
New York in the 1940s was a hothouse of artists and intellectuals. For decades the palace was a hothouse of intrigue.
Hothouse can also be used as a verb meaning to train a child intensively in sport, music, academic work, etc. This often has a negative connotation.
The articles imply that women are hothousing their children when they are simply trying to do the best they can for their families.
So here we see a change in meaning from something good – promoting the growth of plants – to something negative – disapproval of the way some parents train their children.
A word related to hothouse is hotbed, which originally also had to do with the growing of plants. When used figuratively, hotbed especially in British English usually refers to an unwanted or unpleasant activity.
The village had turned into a hotbed of disease.
Can you think of other English words that have taken on a completely new and different meaning?
Many writers find it difficult to distinguish between beside and besides.
Beside is a preposition meaning next to, by the side of. Can I sit beside you? I can never teach my dog to walk calmly beside me.
Beside can also mean in comparison with. I feel stupid beside you.
Beside is used in a couple of sayings: That’s beside the point. (That is not related to what we are talking about.) He was completely beside himself with joy. (He had very strong feelings of joy.)
Besides is a preposition meaning in addition to, apart from. What’s your favourite food besides pizza? Who was there besides you and your girlfriend? Besides being a language teacher she is also a talented piano player.
Besides can also be a linking adverb giving additional information. Sorry I can’t stay longer. It’s a long way home and, besides, I have to get up early tomorrow.
The words personal and personnel are easily confused, even if they are pronounced differently. The word personal has the stress on the first syllable, while personnel has a heavy stress on the last syllable, rhyming with carousel.
Something that is private, that relates to or is owned by one person is personal.
When away from work I use my personal computer. You must keep this in your personal file. When he was promoted, he was allowed to have a personal secretary. Is that your personal opinion? Don’t take it as a personal attack.
The people employed in an organisation form the personnel. Personnel refers to human resources. The word can be used in the singular to denote all employees as a whole or in the plural to denote a group of individual employees.
All personnel is required to strictly follow these instructions. Four security personnel were injured when a gunman opened fire on their patrol. Who is responsible for the personnel file? You’d better check with Personnel (with the Human Resources Department).
Now you should be able to understand the difference between a personal issue and a personnel issue. The first refers to a matter concerning just one person; the second refers to a matter concerning all employees.
Staff is often used synonymously with personnel. The use varies between organisations. Staff can denote people who work for a special purpose, assist a manager or work under a supervisor.
She is on the editorial staff of the journal. You may use the car park for senior staff. He’s in a staff meeting; you’d better send him an email.
Staff can also be a verb:
We are happy to report that we are now fully staffed. We can staff your facility with our employees.
Principal and principle sound the same, yet they have different meanings.
As an adjective, principal means the most important. What’s the principal theme of the book? Principal is also a noun, meaning leading person. He is now principal of the school.
Principal can also refer to a sum of money on which interest is paid. During the first years most of your payments go towards interest rather than principal.
A principle is a rule or guideline. The principle of subsidiarity and the principle of proportionality govern the exercise of the EU’s competences. Einstein formulated the principle of general covariance. I’ve always seen him as a man of principle. ”Those are my principles, and if you don’t like them… well I have others.” (Groucho Marx)
Than is used mainly to introduce the second part of a comparison. The weather is much nicer today than yesterday. I’d rather go for a walk than sit in the garden. Isn’t she taller than her brother?
But what about She is taller than he and She is taller than him?
Nowadays many linguists agree that than is both a conjunction and a preposition. As a conjunction it introduces a new clause, often only implied – She is taller than he [is], and as a preposition it is followed by the object form – She is taller than him.
However, we cannot always ignore the difference between the conjunction and the preposition. She likes my cousin better than I (with than as a conjunction) does not convey the same meaning as She likes my cousin better than me (with than as a preposition). The first sentence means She likes my cousin better than I like my cousin, whereas the second one means She likes my cousin better than she likes me.
As your copyeditor I would recommend that you use than as a conjunction (with the subject form) in formal writing such as a doctoral thesis or a paper for a scientific journal.
Than is also used with some adverbial expressions such as hardly, no sooner, scarcely.
No sooner had we settled down on the beach than a heavy rain started to fall. (Notice that the verb comes before the subject of the verb.)
Then refers to a point in time, either in the past or in the future.
He studied in Paris then. By then, they had married and were expecting their first child. We worked out at the gym and then we took a long swim. First We Take Manhattan, Then We Take Berlin (Song by Leonard Cohen) The door closes automatically at 10 p.m., so you must be back before then. The then President Obama gave a passionate speech.
Supplement and complement are used as nouns and verbs. The adjectives are supplementary and complementary.
Supplement as a verb means add to, increase. She supplemented her salary by freelancing as a journalist. The lecturer gave her students a handout to supplement the textbook.
It is also used as a noun. After a few years the author felt that he had to write a supplement to his book. Have you read the Sunday supplement? (Here supplement means an additional section of a newspaper.) Many athletes use herbal supplements.
Complement means complete, harmonise with, bring to perfection. That tie really complements your suit. Red wine and cheese complement each other. Watching them together on the track through the forest I saw how well they complemented each other.
In mathematics, angles are complementary if they add up to 90 degrees and supplementary if they equal 180 degrees.
Compliment as a verb means to praise, to express appreciation or admiration. He complimented her on her new dress.
It is also used as a noun. Every time someone calls me a nerd, I take it as a compliment. The dinner was excellent. Give my compliments to the chef!
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