Many writers find it difficult to distinguish between beside and besides.
Beside is a preposition meaning next to, by the side of. Can I sit beside you? I can never teach my dog to walk calmly beside me.
Beside can also mean in comparison with. I feel stupid beside you.
Beside is used in a couple of sayings: That’s beside the point. (That is not related to what we are talking about.) He was completely beside himself with joy. (He had very strong feelings of joy.)
Besides is a preposition meaning in addition to, apart from. What’s your favourite food besides pizza? Who was there besides you and your girlfriend? Besides being a language teacher she is also a talented piano player.
Besides can also be a linking adverb giving additional information. Sorry I can’t stay longer. It’s a long way home and, besides, I have to get up early tomorrow.
The words personal and personnel are easily confused, even if they are pronounced differently. The word personal has the stress on the first syllable, while personnel has a heavy stress on the last syllable, rhyming with carousel.
Something that is private, that relates to or is owned by one person is personal.
When away from work I use my personal computer. You must keep this in your personal file. When he was promoted, he was allowed to have a personal secretary. Is that your personal opinion? Don’t take it as a personal attack.
The people employed in an organisation form the personnel. Personnel refers to human resources. The word can be used in the singular to denote all employees as a whole or in the plural to denote a group of individual employees.
All personnel is required to strictly follow these instructions. Four security personnel were injured when a gunman opened fire on their patrol. Who is responsible for the personnel file? You’d better check with Personnel (with the Human Resources Department).
Now you should be able to understand the difference between a personal issue and a personnel issue. The first refers to a matter concerning just one person; the second refers to a matter concerning all employees.
Staff is often used synonymously with personnel. The use varies between organisations. Staff can denote people who work for a special purpose, assist a manager or work under a supervisor.
She is on the editorial staff of the journal. You may use the car park for senior staff. He’s in a staff meeting; you’d better send him an email.
Staff can also be a verb:
We are happy to report that we are now fully staffed. We can staff your facility with our employees.
Principal and principle sound the same, yet they have different meanings.
As an adjective, principal means the most important. What’s the principal theme of the book? Principal is also a noun, meaning leading person. He is now principal of the school.
Principal can also refer to a sum of money on which interest is paid. During the first years most of your payments go towards interest rather than principal.
A principle is a rule or guideline. The principle of subsidiarity and the principle of proportionality govern the exercise of the EU’s competences. Einstein formulated the principle of general covariance. I’ve always seen him as a man of principle. ”Those are my principles, and if you don’t like them… well I have others.” (Groucho Marx)
Than is used mainly to introduce the second part of a comparison. The weather is much nicer today than yesterday. I’d rather go for a walk than sit in the garden. Isn’t she taller than her brother?
But what about She is taller than he and She is taller than him?
Nowadays many linguists agree that than is both a conjunction and a preposition. As a conjunction it introduces a new clause, often only implied – She is taller than he [is], and as a preposition it is followed by the object form – She is taller than him.
However, we cannot always ignore the difference between the conjunction and the preposition. She likes my cousin better than I (with than as a conjunction) does not convey the same meaning as She likes my cousin better than me (with than as a preposition). The first sentence means She likes my cousin better than I like my cousin, whereas the second one means She likes my cousin better than she likes me.
As your copyeditor I would recommend that you use than as a conjunction (with the subject form) in formal writing such as a doctoral thesis or a paper for a scientific journal.
Than is also used with some adverbial expressions such as hardly, no sooner, scarcely.
No sooner had we settled down on the beach than a heavy rain started to fall. (Notice that the verb comes before the subject of the verb.)
Then refers to a point in time, either in the past or in the future.
He studied in Paris then. By then, they had married and were expecting their first child. We worked out at the gym and then we took a long swim. First We Take Manhattan, Then We Take Berlin (Song by Leonard Cohen) The door closes automatically at 10 p.m., so you must be back before then. The then President Obama gave a passionate speech.
Writers are sometimes not sure about when to write it’s or its.
IT’S An apostrophe means that a letter has been left out (sometimes more than one letter). It’s is the abbreviated form of it is (or sometimes it has).
It’s hard to believe that he is 14 years old (It is hard to believe…). The book is very thick, but it’s really interesting (it is really interesting). It’s been a long day (It has been a long day). It’s got to be true (It has got to be true).
ITS Its is the possessive form of the pronoun it.
Stockholm is known for its many islands. The cat was licking its paw.
The simple rule is this: If you can say it is or it has, then the form with an apostrophe, it’s, is correct.
The abbreviated form it’s should not be used in formal language – there you should write it is.
What is true about it’s and its also applies to you’re and your, they’re and their or who’s and whose.
Affect and effect are two words that easily get mixed up
Affect is mainly used as a verb. It means have an impact on, have an effect on. The bad weather affected our plans for the evening. The old man was visibly affected by the girl’s kind words. How will the strike affect your job?
Effect is a noun. It denotesthe result of an action oran impression. The effect of his words was immediate. I liked the sound effects in the film. The law is still in effect.
To sum up, most often affect is a verb and effect is a noun.
That said, you may – on rare occasions – find affect used as a noun. Then it means something that acts on something else, usually in psychological jargon.
And effect can be used as a verb meaning to produce, bring about something new, often in phrases like ”to effect a change”
Have you ever thought about the difference between effective and efficient?
Use effective when you want to say that something gives the result that was intended. Effective tells us whether something has been done, not how it was done. The focus is on the result.
Those pills are really effective – my headache disappeared in less than twenty minutes. The manager’s speech was short but remarkably effective.
Being effective can also mean officially start.
The new regulation is effective from 1 October.
Use efficient to say that somebody or something works well without wasting time, money or energy. Efficient tells us how something was achieved. The focus is on the process, on minimising cost or waste.
We are installing a much more efficient cooling system. She is a very efficient salesperson.
To sum up, effective is goal-oriented and focuses on the ability to produce a wanted result; efficient focuses on how little was wasted to produce the result. Or, to quote Peter Drucker, being effective means doing the right things, being efficient means doing things right.
An efficient company will do things at a lower cost (with higher profit), but it must also meet the customers’ requirements by being effective.
The corresponding nouns are effectiveness and efficiency.
If you have seven minutes to spare, here is a video explaining the difference between effective and efficient. And here you can read about affect and effect.
e.g. stands for exempli gratia, which means for example. Use e.g. when you want to list one or more examples of something you have mentioned.
Our products are sold in several European countries, e.g. France, Germany, Italy and Greece.
Since you want to give examples, don’t write a complete list.
i.e. stands for id est, which is Latin for that is or in other words. Use i.e. to clarify or explain something.
I am a linguist, i.e. I study languages.
In writing, e.g. and i.e. are lowercase. There should be a full stop after each letter, and the abbreviations should be preceded by a comma. In American English there should also be a comma after the abbreviation; British English usually does not have this comma. Instead of a comma before the abbreviation you can have a dash.
Latin words are often italicized in English texts, but when abbreviated they should be written in normal font.
The two abbreviations can, of course, be written out in full: for example and that is or that is to say. You should avoid beginning a sentence with an abbreviation.
To sum up, e.g. opens up some possibilities, i.e. narrows them down.
You will find more Latin abbreviations in English here.
You are an expert in your field, but there will be times when you need to look up a word to make sure your English is correct.
The first resource that comes to mind if you are a non-native English writer is a bilingual dictionary. You use a German–English, an Italian–English, a Swedish–English, etc. dictionary. There are general wordbooks, but you may need a specialised dictionary. For Swedish writers the standard work is Ingvar E. Gullberg: Svensk–engelsk fackordbok för näringsliv, förvaltning, undervisning och forskning [A Swedish–English dictionary of technical terms used in business, industry, administration, education and research] (Norstedts, 2000). With over 200 000 headwords it is the largest specialised dictionary in Sweden. It is also available as internet subscription from ne.ord.se at SEK 29/month.
There are, of course, also dictionaries dealing with vocabulary in specific fields of interest such as architecture, economics, medicine, slang, technology, etc.
Monolingual dictionaries, in our case completely in English, give you helpful explanations of words. They are usually intended for non-native users of English and therefore the explanations are simple and easy to understand. Use them to check that a word you have chosen really has the meaning you intended. Here is an example from Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English:
Examples of such dictionaries are:
Cambridge International Dictionary of English Collins English Dictionary Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Oxford Dictionary of English
Printed dictionaries are expensive and are not regularly updated. You can find many useful resources on the internet. The dictionaries mentioned above are available online. The following are some other internet sites for your word search:
What if you cannot find a translation of the word you want to use? Ask an expert! Once when I had to translate a word that I could not find in any dictionary, I called the Swedish Coast Guard and asked how they said the word in English. Of course they could help me.
You need to understand the difference between amount and number.
There are things we can count and things we cannot count. With countable nouns we use number of and with uncountable nouns amount of. We can talk about the amount of time we work or about the number of hours we work.
A large number of cars had stopped behind the lorry. We were impressed by the number of spectators. She only drank a small amount of water. I hadn’t expected that amount of work.
We can also use plural forms: He drank vast amounts of beer. Here you will find statistics related to numbers of taxpayers and registered traders.
With amount we say how much of something is present. With number we talk about how many there are.
Notice how the verb form changes:
The number of students has increased every year since 2015. The verb is in the singular because the main subject here is number. The word students could be replaced by another word like cars, newspapers, attacks, etc.
A number of students have published a campus journal. The verb is in the plural because the main subject is students. A number of can be replaced by, for example, some.
To sum up: The number of … has the singular form of the verb. A number of … has the plural form of the verb.
Both amount and number can also be used as verbs: How much did it amount to? Number the parts from 1–10 according to how you rate their functionality.
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