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Briefly and shortly

Briefly and shortly are easily confused. While brief and short are often synonymous (as you can read here), briefly and shortly have very different meanings.

Briefly means for a short time.

She appeared briefly in an Italian film.
In Britain he worked briefly as a veterinarian.
We spoke briefly about the weather.

Shortly means soon and indicates a point in time.

Shortly after her exam, she moved to Paris.
I’ll be with you shortly.

The following message should not worry you too much:

The landlord will briefly cut off electricity in the building.
This means that you will be without electricity for a short time.

However, if you get the following message, you might worry:

The landlord will shortly cut off electricity in the building.
This implies that you may not have time to prepare for the power cut.

To sum up:

Briefly tells us that something lasts for a short time.
Shortly indicates a short time before or after something.

I’ll see you briefly means that I will see you for a short time.
I’ll see you shortly means that I will see you very soon.

A young couple is seen from above waving goodbye.
They said they’d be back shortly

As I mentioned above, you can read about the words brief and short here.

Brief and short

What’s the difference between brief and short?

Both brief and short are adjectives that are the opposite of long when we talk about time.

The lecturer gave a brief summary of previous research.
There was a brief moment of silence.

We had a short discussion.
It happened a short time ago.

Short can also be the opposite of tall as well as the opposite of long when we talk about distance.

The boy was short and chubby.
The bus stop is just a short distance from our house.

A small boy is taking a short walk with his grandfather.
A short walk with grandpa

Brief is sometimes used as a verb meaning inform and as a noun meaning short information, summary.

The press secretary briefed us about the decision.
Our boss gave us a first brief of the negotiations.

Brief can also mean instructions about duties, responsibilities, etc.

Part of the architect’s brief was to design a building that would comply with local environmental regulations.

A briefing is a meeting in which detailed information or instructions are given.

Debriefing has two meanings: A detailed report given by an agent or a soldier after a mission has been carried out or a meeting held after a traumatic event (such as a natural disaster, a hijacking, etc.) to let victims deal with their trauma.

Briefs is another word for underwear, while shorts are trousers (usually for sport or relaxing) that reach only to the thighs or the knees. Shorts can also refer to underwear for men.

Before this text gets too long, I had better remind myself to be brief or to keep it short.

My next blog post takes a look at briefly and shortly, two words with very different meanings.

What’s the difference between -ic and -ical?

The endings -ic and -ical may cause confusion. They both have the meaning of related to or characterised by.

The ending -ic is more common. Here are some examples:
academic
anestethic
athletic
chaotic
episodic
linguistic
melodic
neurotic
parodic
patriotic
poetic
rhapsodic
sympathetic
synthetic

The adjective ending -ical is common with nouns ending in -ology.
anthropological
biological
geological
physiological
theological

Nouns ending in -ic take the ending -ical as adjectives:
clinical
musical
sceptical

There are adjectives that have different meanings when they end in -ic and -ical:

CLASSIC is used to denote a standard, the highest quality or having lasting worth:
Over 200 classic motorcycles are on display at the motor show.
She wore a casual but classic outfit.

Interior of a red Fiat 500 with steering wheel,  dashboard and pedals visible
The Fiat Cinquecento is a classic car.

The Classics refers to the literature of ancient Greece or Rome:
I’ve always wanted to read the Classics but I never seem to have time.

CLASSICAL refers to the culture of ancient Greece or Rome or to European music from the 18th and 19th centuries:
In Italy a classical education is considered valuable also in business.
Beethoven was arguably the greatest composer in the transition between classical and romantic music.

Classical can also refer to established principles in, e.g. physics:
Classical mechanics is based on Newton’s general principles.

ECONOMIC refers to economy:
Economic growth had never been stronger.

ECONOMICAL means being efficient or careful about spending money:
Modern cars are much more economical.

ELECTRIC refers to machines or instruments powered by electricity:
Electric cars are becoming very popular in Norway.

ELECTRICAL means related to electricity:
He is an electrical engineer.
The fire was started by some electrical fault.

HISTORIC
To denote something important in history we use historic:
This was a historic moment for our country.
You must visit the town’s historic houses and gardens.

HISTORICAL
Historical means related to or having to do with history or past events:
In my youth I liked to read historical novels.

Adjectives ending in -ic and -ical have the adverbial form -ically (but the word public takes the form publicly).

How the English language changes

A language is a living organism that constantly changes. Words often take on another meaning over time.

Let me give you an example:

HOTHOUSE

Originally this word meant a heated building, usually made of glass, used to grow plants.

This is what it still means today, but the word is now also used figuratively referring to a place or situation with intense activity, usually to promote the development of somebody or something.

New York in the 1940s was a hothouse of artists and intellectuals.
For decades the palace was a hothouse of intrigue.

Hothouse can also be used as a verb meaning to train a child intensively in sport, music, academic work, etc. This often has a negative connotation.

The articles imply that women are hothousing their children when they are simply trying to do the best they can for their families.

While walking to school a father is checking his daughter's knowledge to see if she has done her homework
Are we hothousing our children?

So here we see a change in meaning from something good – promoting the growth of plants – to something negative – disapproval of the way some parents train their children.

A word related to hothouse is hotbed, which originally also had to do with the growing of plants. When used figuratively, hotbed especially in British English usually refers to an unwanted or unpleasant activity.

The village had turned into a hotbed of disease.

Can you think of other English words that have taken on a completely new and different meaning?

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